ANALOGY: a relationship between a pair of words.  Analogies show relationships between two pairs of words.  (Example: 

 

pharmacy : drugstore  ::  carousel :

a.

entertainment

b.

horses

c.

merry-go-round)

 

CHARACTERIZATION:  the author’s ways of developing the character.  (Example:  She was wringing her hands.  Use that sentence instead of saying, “She was nervous.”)

 

CONFLICT:  the problem or struggle in the story.

 

RESOLUTION:  a word often used for resolution is “denouement”, a French word meaning the same.  They both mean to tie up the lose ends of the story.

 

FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE:  ways of writing descriptively.  Includes alliteration, assonance, cliche’, metaphor, onomatopoeia, personification, simile, idiom, etc.

 

GENRE:  they type of reading or writing.  For example, mystery, tragedy, romance, memoir, etc.

 

IRONY:  when the reader receives the unexpected.  A contrast between reality and what is expected.

 

PLOT:  the events in the storyline.  Parts of the plot are as follows (exposition-introduction, rising action, climax, falling action, resolution—denouement)

 

POINT OF VIEW:  the perspective or view from which the story is told.

 

SETTING:  time, place, and mood.  Must include all three.

 

STRUCTURE:  framework of an English sentence, phrase, or clause.

 

SYMBOLISM:  when one thing stands for something else.  For example, in The Red Badge of Courage, the main character really did wear a badge, but the word “red” also symbolizes blood, which becomes a major part of the story.

 

THEME:  the central overall message

 

ASIDE:  when an actor turns to the audience to speak

 

METAPHOR:  comparing two unlike things without using like or as.

 

SIMILE:  comparing two like things using like or as.

 

ALLITERATION:  the repetition of consonant sounds in a line of poetry or prose

 

PARADOX:  A paradox is an apparently true statement or group of statements that seems to lead to a contradiction or to a situation that defies intuition

 

ANECDOTE:  An anecdote is a brief tale narrating an interesting or amusing biographical incident.

 

CONSONANCE:  the repetition of consonant sounds but not vowel sounds.  Example:
lady lounges lazily , dark deep dread crept in.

ASSONANCE:  Assonance is the repetition of vowel sounds but not consonant sounds as in consonance. Example:fleet feet sweep by sleeping geeks.

PROTAGONIST:      the character in the story that the plot revolves around.

ANTAGONIST:         the character who blocks the protagonist’s efforts.

MONOLOGUE:  one person speaking, but the rest of the actors are listening

SOLILOQUY:  one person speaking, but the speaker does not realize that anyone else is listening to him or her.  Example:  Juliet in the balcony scene

IMAGERY:    painting a picture with the usage of our words

ONOMATOPOEIA:  natural sounds in writing

HYPERBOLE:  an extreme exaggeration

PERSONIFICATION:  giving a nonhuman thing human characteristics

PROPAGANDA:   a specific type of message presentation directly aimed at influencing the opinions of people, rather than impartially providing information. In some cultures the term is neutral or even positive, while in others the term has acquired a strong negative connotation.

BANDWAGON:  a persuasive technique used when the writer wants to give the appearance that we should make a decision just because “everyone else is doing it.”

BIAS OR PREJUDICE:  a strong leaning to one side over another when a person does not have all the facts.

DEDUCTIVE REASONING:  Deductive reasoning" refers to the process of concluding that something must be true because it is a special case of a general principle that is known to be true. For example, if you know the general principle that the sum of the angles in any triangle is always 180 degrees, and you have a particular triangle in mind, you can then conclude that the sum of the angles in your triangle is 180 degrees.

INDUCTIVE REASONING:  the process of reasoning that a general principle is true because the special cases you've seen are true. For example, if all the people you've ever met from a particular town have been very strange, you might then say "all the residents of this town are strange". That is inductive reasoning: constructing a general principle from special cases. It goes in the opposite direction from deductive reasoning.

TESTIMONIAL:  when a celebrity endorses a product and speaks of its value.

***THE NEXT DEFINITIONS NEED TO BE TAUGHT AS TEXT FEATURES FOR INFORMATIONAL READING OR WRITING

ILLUSTRATION:  a picture or design within text

CHART:  a visual display of information

TABLE:  a set of information arranged in rows or columns

INDEX:  a page or table which explains where a certain topic can be found within the text

GLOSSARY:  a listing of words and their meanings, usually in the back of the text

CAPTION:  appears in small print underneath an illustration or chart, explaining what is in the graphic. 

FORMAT:  the way of making the writing appeasing to the reader, how you lay it out on the page

JARGON:  language special to a certain profession

***THE NEXT DEFINITIONS NEED TO BE TAUGHT AS PART OF THE WRITING PROCESS

PREWRITING:  gathering thoughts to begin writing, such as brainstorming or webbing

DRAFT:  when one stage of the writing is complete and is presented.  Oftentimes, a writing will go through first, second, and third drafts.

REVISE:  when changes are made in a draft, more descriptive words are added, or the focus is narrowed.

EDIT:  when changes are made in a draft, such as spelling, capitalization, or punctuation

PUBLISH:  when the final draft is complete and the writing is placed in a portfolio, on a bulletin board, in a magazine, etc.

SENSORY DETAILS:  awakening the senses in writing (see, feel, smell, taste, hear)